1996-2001 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. The maintenance instruction
+ 1.2. The information before car driving
+ 1.3. Independent maintenance service
+ 1.4. Technical characteristics
+ 1.5. Some councils at car purchase
+ 2. Maintenance service
- 3. Engines
+ 3.1.2. Compression check
+ 3.2. 6-cylinder двухрядные engines V6 of 3,0 l
- 3.3. A partition of engines
18.104.22.168. 6-cylinder двухрядные engines
3.3.2. Engine major repairs – broad-brush observations
3.3.3. Diagnostics of the engine with the help вакууметра
3.3.4. Engine major repairs – alternatives
3.3.5. Auxiliary elements of the engine
3.3.6. Removal and engine installation
3.3.7. An engine partition
3.3.8. A head of cylinders and valves
3.3.9. The balancing device (the 4-cylinder engine)
3.3.10. Pistons and rods
3.3.11. A cranked shaft
3.3.12. The block of cylinders
3.3.13. Хонингование cylinders
3.3.14. Radical bearings and bearings of rods
3.3.15. Measurement of size of a free wheeling of the balancing device
3.3.16. Piston rings
3.3.17. Radical bearings of a cranked shaft
3.3.18. A back epiploon of a cranked shaft
3.3.19. Shatunnye bearings
3.3.20. Installation of the balancing device of the engine
3.3.21. It is more likely live, than it is dead …
3.3.22. The analysis дымности an exhaust
3.3.23. A gear belt for a mechanism drive timing
3.3.24. Occurrence in deposit oil
3.3.25. An engine overheat
+ 3.4. An engine electric equipment
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. An exhaust system
+ 8. Transmission
+ 9. A running gear
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. A body
+ 12. An electric equipment
The simplified formula of system of greasing двигатедя, providing durability and its economic work sounds so: Pressure, Level and Quality!
First, pressure. All well-known that pressure of oil in the engine constantly should be supervised during movement of the car by means of regular devices – a control lamp or also стрелочного an electric manometre.
Pressure should be not less than 0,5 Bar at the minimum turns of idling (the control lamp does not burn or blinks) and no more than 4,5 Bar at high frequency of rotation of a shaft of the engine. If at the working engine the control lamp of emergency pressure of oil or the marksman of an electric manometre suddenly has lighted up has fallen to a zero – immediately switch off the engine, stop in a safe place and find the reason of this phenomenon.
Pressure presence in greasing system is better to check by means of the exemplary manometre twirled to the place of the gauge. If such is not present near at hand – for example, breakage has happened on the journey it is necessary to check up, whether there was an oil in the engine pallet, and then – whether the conductor going from the gauge of pressure has broken. When also a wire on a place, and oil is on probeе – unscrew the gauge of pressure and, having closed an aperture of the main oil highway, ask the assistant to start the engine. If at the working engine oil does not follow from the main oil highway under pressure – it is necessary to check and repair a drive of the pump or маслозаборник. But it is a theme of separate conversation. It is necessary to remember the main thing – work of the engine without corresponding pressure of oil is forbidden! Will reach more cheaply to HUNDRED on a tow. If after start of the engine oil follows from the trunk main under pressure the showing system is faulty.
Check of working capacity of the showing device
At the included ignition to disconnect a wire from the gauge and to touch it "weight" of the car. If the device is serviceable, the arrow will deviate on the maximum value of pressure or the control lamp will light up.
Check of working capacity of the gauge of pressure
To unscrew the gauge, to press its case to "weight", without removing a conductor. The pump or the compressor for inflating of wheels to create pressure in an oil highway of the gauge and at the included ignition to observe of an arrow deviation. If the arrow of an electric manometre of pressure of oil deviates proportionally to change of pressure of air the showing system is serviceable. At faulty showing system it is possible to reach only to the nearest HUNDRED provided that you were convinced available pressure of greasing system.
The second making is level of oil.
To check oil level it is desirable daily, anyway is not more rare, than through 500 km of run. On the cold engine level should be between labels "min" and "max". The deviation these borders is inadmissible.
Change of level of oil – the important diagnostic parametre. If, for example, in "Zhigulis" it is necessary to add no more than 0,5 m of oil on 1000 km of run, a condition of the engine the fine. A standard expense allowance for these engines – to 0,8 l on 1000 km, at much большем the expense – search for the reason. More often it негерметичность greasing systems, deterioration of condensing elements газораспределительного the mechanism (the epiploons, directing plugs of valves), malfunction of system of ventilation картера or deterioration цилиндропоршневой groups.
That is, the oil level faster decreases, the the engine condition is worse. In this case oil should be added. Never mix the different oils, even the most known firms is can have undesirable consequences. To pass to other mark (firm) it is possible, but before it wash out the engine and already further use oil only this mark.
Sometimes level does not decrease, and on the contrary, increases. It is a bad sign as increase oil level can only in two cases: at occurrence in the pallet картера the engine of a cooling liquid or fuel. Both that, and another is extremely undesirable.
Occurrence on probeе foamy эмульсии yellow-whitish colour specifies in presence of a cooling liquid in oil and, as a rule, on necessity of repair of the engine. The same эмульсия in a jellied mouth, under a cover газораспределительного the mechanism or in a ventilating tube картера is formed at short trips to a cold season and is not a sign of malfunction of the engine. At long work of the engine in a normal temperature mode the specified phenomenon is not observed, that is эмульсия independently disappears under the influence of a heat.
If oil level has considerably increased, it became liquid with a fuel smell, the reason in poor-quality fuel, idle candles or in malfunction of system of giving of fuel. It is necessary to change oil, but preliminary to find and eliminate the reason of increase of its level.
And the third making is a quality of oil.
It is clear that such engine oil which answers on an index of viscosity and quality indicators to the concrete engine is qualitative.
Outwardly fresh oil should be yellow or light brown without any deposits. And what to do with a deposit if it is in firm canisters: diligently to mix and fill in in the engine, or to fill in only a light part of oil, having left a deposit (by the way, this question often met in letters of readers)? Neither that, nor another!!! Simply do not buy the oil having a deposit. Its presence is an indicator of poor-quality oil. The deposit of grey, yellow colours or their shades is formed in the presence of water. The deposit dark to black colours appears at excess of a period of storage of oil (that is over 5 years) or at poor-quality clearing of base oil.
The deposit can be seen, if the canister translucent and long time is motionless. In all other cases in oil and, hence, its unfitness to use in the engine, it is possible to define water presence very simply and quickly. It is necessary to pour oil half-test tubes, to heat up it to temperature 100 ° S.Pojavlenie on an oil surface мены specifies in presence in it waters.
Presence of mechanical impurity can be defined, having dripped oils on filtering paper. If after drying there was a light yellow stain – oil pure. If yellowish or, even worse, a grayish stain with a dark edging on perimetre – oil has a considerable quantity of mechanical impurity. It in case buy fresh, new oil. And what already worked in the engine, it is necessary to replace, when at check the grey stain in the middle is less than width of a black edging on its perimetre.
The most difficult is check on presence of additives in oil. For this purpose it is necessary to type in pure dry heat-resistant glasswares 50–70 г oil and as much distilled water in which it is dissolved 3–4 г фенолфталеина. Then capacity with oil and a solution фенолфталеина put in a pan with water, heat up to boiling, from time to time mixing a mix. After water boiling allow to all "bath" to cool down to a room temperature. If the water solution in oil became reddish (crimson) – that additives are, oil normal. In all other cases – oil poor-quality, without additives.